Scientists Create and Add Elements 113 and
115 to Periodic Table
by Linda Moulton Howe
The superheavy Element 115 was created in a Dubna, Russia,
cyclotron by slamming a rare isotope of calcium that
has 20 protons at americium which has 95 protons. Four atoms
containing 115 protons from the combination and fusion
of the calcium and americium were created for less than 100 milliseconds - Element 115 Ununpentium - and
then decayed into Element 113 Ununtrium and
others. Graphic courtesy Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
February 6, 2004 Livermore,
California - Back in 1989-1990, I had
several phone conversations and a meeting with an electrical
engineer named Robert Lazar to talk about his alleged firsthand
knowledge of non-terrestrial technology. Bob had previously worked
at Los Alamos National Laboratory and from the end of 1988 until
March 1989 was doing part time work at a highly classified place
called "S-4" built inside the Papoose Mountains near Groom Lake,
Area 51, at Nellis AFB north of Las Vegas.
Bob said large engineering bays were dug into the
Papoose Mountains and were camouflaged by sand-covered doors that
would show up in satellite photographs like the rest of the sandy
hills. Inside those engineering bays, Bob said there were at least
nine disk-shaped spacecraft designated "extraterrestrial." He was
assigned to do back-engineering on one particular model that seemed
to have a highly advanced propulsion system. Bob said he was told
that the fuel was "Element 115," not yet discovered by any Earth
science. Bob's superiors explained that the sources of the Element
115 were binary star systems. Bob said the fuel material was in a
stable form that could be held in his hands. Element 115, he said,
had the unusual ability to produce antimatter in a special container
that powered the craft. Antimatter combined with matter would cause
mutual annihilation of protons, neutrons and electrons and the
release of enormous quantities of energy.
According to Bob Lazar, only half a pound of the
Element 115 at S-4 could power a spacecraft for about 30 Earth
years. More amazing than that, he said, Top Secret scientific
research had concluded that the huge energy Element 115 could
produce was used to distort space and time with strong gravitational
fields, also generated by technology on the spacecraft. The result
was that the disk could quickly "jump around in the cosmos from
point to point," rather than the impossibly long travel in light
years that current human technology would face.
Thirteen years ago in 1991, Bob Lazar produced a
documentary about his experiences inside S-4 with the alleged
extraterrestrial craft and propulsion system. The title was Here is
a brief excerpt of Bob describing what he learned about the power
source that provides the energy needed to warp gravity, space and
"The power source (of the craft) is a reactor
that uses Element 115 as a fuel and uses a total annihilation
reaction that provides the heat that it converts to energy, making
it a compact, light-weight, efficient onboard power source.
I've got a couple of quick comments about
Element 115 for those who are interested. By virtue of the way
it's used in the reactor, it depletes very slowly and only 223
grams of Element 115 which is just under half a pound
can be utilized for a period of 20 to 30 years.
This demonstrates the enormous amount of power
released when you totally convert matter to energy, which is what
happens when anti-matter and matter are combined. So, back to our
Inside the reactor, Element 115 is bombarded
with a proton which plugs into the nucleus of the 115 atom and
becomes Element 116 which immediately decays and releases or
radiates small amounts of anti-matter. The anti-matter is released
into a vacuum into a tube that keeps it from reacting with the
matter that's around it. It's then directed towards the gaseous
matter target at the end of the tube. The matter and anti-matter
collide and annihilate, fully converting to energy. The heat from
this reaction is converted into electrical energy in a near 100%
efficient thermoelectric generator. This is a device that converts
heat directly into electrical energy."
According to government insiders, all of this was
and still is - kept under a TOP SECRET government order
of secrecy in the interests of national security.
If it's true that some isotope of Element 115 has
been maintained in a stable form at S-4 Area 51 for decades,
it would come as quite a shock to a team of Russian and American
scientists who announced on February 1st that they had finally
produced four atoms of Element 115 that until now had only
been theorized, but never observed.
It's especially interesting that the scientists
deliberately went looking for Element 115 because it is supposed to
be theoretically in a more stable region of radioactive elements as
the numbers of neutrons and protons increase in the Periodic Table
of Elements. But the scientists found Element 115 by slamming atoms
of calcium against larger americium atoms at almost the speed of
light. The result is so fleeting, so unstable, that the Element 115
isotope produced hung around for less than 100 milliseconds before
decaying into Element 113 and lower elements on the Periodic
Element 115 Ununpentium decay chain: to
Element 113 Ununtrium, to Element 111 Unununium, to
Element 109 Meitnerium, to Element 107 Bohrium, to
Element 105 Dubnium. Graphic courtesy Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory.
This week I talked with one of the American
scientists doing the Element 115 research. He is Dr. Joshua Patin,
nuclear chemist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in
Livermore, California, about 60 miles southeast of Berkeley. I asked
why their specific interest in making Element 115.
Members of the Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory Chemistry and Materials Science
Directorate's Heavy-Elements Research Team in January
2004 (l-r): Jerry Landrum (retired), Dawn Shaughnessy, Joshua Patin,
Philip Wilk, and Kenton Moody. Not pictured: John
Wild, Mark Stoyer, Nancy Stoyer, Jackie Kenneally, and
Ron Lougheed (retired).
Joshua Patin, Ph.D., Nuclear Chemist, Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore,
California: "It was an experiment that had
been chosen because of its decay through Element 113. So, there was
a notion at the beginning of the experiment that if we saw the decay
of Element 115, we would also see the decay of Element 113. And
those had not been seen before.
AND IN THE HYPOTHESIS OF THESE HIGHER ELEMENTS,
ISN'T IT TRUE THAT CONCERNING THE PERIODIC TABLE, PHYSICISTS HAVE
SPECULATED THERE WOULD BE A POINT SOMEWHERE AROUND ELEMENT 115 OR
HIGHER WHERE THERE WOULD BE MORE STABILITY AND MAYBE EVEN A LONGER
True. When you are looking at the various isotopes
that can be produced of elements 114, 115, 116, even 113, there are
some isotopes that have been predicted to have very long half lives.
The region where initially it was proposed to have more stability
was Element 114 with 114 protons. But we need to put more neutrons
in (to balance out the protons) and that's a whole other area in
terms of what kind of experiment we want to perform.
With the current level of technology and types of
targets like the americium 243 and the beams that we used of the
calcium 48, we can't necessarily quite get there, but we can get
close. That's why we've done these experiments.
By doing the Element 115 and Element 113 experiment
and in the past with the group of Element 116 and 114, we've shown
that there is this enhanced area of stability.
moment of collision between an accelerated calcium-48 ion and an americium-243 target atom which produced Element
115 that decayed into Element 113 and other decays.
Graphic courtesy Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
of the target/ion collision which produced the new superheavy Element 115, decaying with the emission of
spontaneous fission decay of the "decay descendant" of
the new superheavy Element 115 into two separate atoms.
COULD THERE BE AN ELEMENT 115 ISOTOPE THAT IS SOLID
AND CAN BE HELD IN THE HAND?
Some day down the road, I think so. If it's true
that we find something that is long enough lived. To hold something
in your hand, you would need a significant quantity of these atoms.
We've produced four atoms of Element 115 in a month. It would take
you don't have enough time in the rest of the universe to
create enough that you could hold in your hand through these same
kinds of production methods (that we are using). That's why I say a
future technology might allow us advances in terms of how much can
be produced and the target material, maybe a better way of producing
but somewhere down the road, there might be a possibility,
AND SO WITH ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, YOU MIGHT BE ABLE
TO PRODUCE ELEMENT 115 IN ENOUGH QUANTITY THAT IT COULD BE SOME KIND
OF SOLID MATTER THAT COULD BE WORKED WITH AND APPLIED IN OTHER
Robert Lazar's Experience
I told nuclear chemist, Dr. Joshua Patin, about
Robert Lazar's alleged work more than a decade ago with a stable
form of Element 115 at the Top Secret S-4 facility in Area 51 at
Nellis AFB in Nevada. I asked him if he knew anything about such
United States government research?
Dr. Patin: "Only from
what I've read, probably similar to what you've read in the past
week doing my own searches on Element 115 in my case, just to
see what had been published about our current work. I just wanted to
see how many articles had been written about the work we've done so
far. But I came across this and hadn't read it before. I wasn't
familiar with it whatsoever.
All I can say now is that the Element 115 we're
creating lives less than 100 milliseconds. There is no way that you
could ever have enough of the particular isotopes that we've created
to hold in your hand with the current production methods that we
BUT IF HIS STORY WAS CORRECT AND OUR GOVERNMENT HAS
SOME KIND OF SOMETHING FROM AN OFF-PLANET SOURCE THAT'S SUPPOSED TO
BE IDENTIFIED AS A STABLE FORM OF ELEMENT 115, IT IS FEASIBLE THAT
SOMETHING WITH ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY COULD MAKE SOLID FORM OF ELEMENT
Well, only in the sense that our theories say now
there is this enhanced region of stability. Hypothetically, if this
story is true or proved true and accepted by the heavy element
science community it would be probably be a form of Element
115 that had more neutrons than the ones we have created. I mean
that's all I can say. If you are talking about Element 115 that's
stable in the sense that you could hold it in your hand, that's what
I would think it would have to have more neutrons. What we
know, what theory has predicted about the region, we would need to
put in more neutrons to increase the life time or the half life of
the activity to the point where it would be stable. I don't know
that I would like to hold it in my hand, considering it would still
be somewhat radioactive but, maybe these things have half
lives of maybe millions of years. I don't know. That part of the
theory I don't know. Right now, for us and the community doing the
production like we are doing with these experiments we can
only go so far.
With what we are seeing, we are seeing the
possibility that everything we've created has very short life times.
However, significantly longer than anything else around them, which
is why we are calling it an island of stability. We're just on the
shoals or the beach and getting closer and closer.
IF YOU HAD THE TECHNOLOGY TO ADD NEUTRONS TO WHAT
YOU'VE ALREADY BEEN ABLE TO SEE IN THE COLLIDER, YOU MIGHT END UP
WITH MATTER THAT WE KNOW WOULD BE STABLE ENOUGH TO SIT ON A
I think the technology would have to be completely
different. I think in our current experiments, even if you added
more neutrons, you are still only going to produce a certain number
of atoms 10, 15, 20 or whatever. You need millions and
millions and millions of these before you'd have something that
let alone could see or put in your hand to hold. So, I mention
this along the lines that what we do, you wouldn't use what we do as
a production method. It's purely an observational sense.
Also along those lines if it is something
that lives as long as I guess what you are saying, it's nothing we
would see. We see the decay of these elements through their
radioactive decay. And we can see them because they have such short
life times, such short half lives. So during the course of an
experiment, we expect a decay to occur. If they weren't radioactive
and were stable, we would never see them. We only see the energy
that is given off in their decay.
So, it's along those lines. If the lifetimes
increase, it becomes increasingly more difficult to see them. That's
something that will be corrected for and there are other ways to do
these experiments where you are not relying on their radioactivity
to see them, but you can separate them other ways in the chance of
seeing them if they have longer half lives. That's when you start
producing them in chemical experiments where you can tell by their
chemistry if they are Element 115. That's in the future. That's not
right now. And you definitely wouldn't use our particular method for
doing what we've seen to produce anything like that.
From what you've told me in terms of handling it
with your hand, you don't want to handle radioactivity with your
hands. So if it's something that is stable where there is no concern
about radioactivity and this is just in general you are
not going to have radioactivity (to test), therefore you are going
to have to use chemistry to identify some chemical method to
identify what you have. And that's only with massive quantities
something that is stable like that, that's when chemistry is
AND HYPOTHETICALLY IF YOU WERE ABLE TO TAKE THE
ELEMENT 115 THAT YOU HAVE BEEN ABLE TO PRODUCE IN THE COLLISION OF
THE CALCIUM ION WITH THE AMERICIUM AND ADD MORE NEUTRONS TO IT,
HYPOTHETICALLY IT COULD BECOME A STABLE NON-RADIOACTIVE PIECE OF
MATTER, ELEMENT 115?
I don't know. That would be something for us to
discover. I don't know enough about what the theory predicts for the
region (on the Periodic Table) to say if that could happen. I don't
know if the life times are long enough to get to the point that they
are stable and not radioactive."
Dr. Patin says that Elements 113 and 115 can now be
added to the Periodic Table of Elements and probably Element
116 which is the limit to what atomic physicists have seen so far.
After that, he and his colleagues are going to experiment to see if
they can find Element 118 which will be the outer frontier of
elements in human physics
But there is the nagging question: Are there other
intelligences out there that are so beyond human knowledge and
technology that they can use a special isotope of Element 115 - that
is stable - to warp gravity, space and time so they can
travel in quick jumps around the cosmos?