Transcription by J. T.
Translation and Amended by
J. C. Greenfield
Courtesy of the Israel
Copied ca. 200-150 B.C.E.
Fragment B height 6.4 cm
(2 1/2 in.), length 6.9 cm (2 11/16 in.)
Fragment A height 17.5 cm
(6 7/8 in.), length 17.5 cm (6 7/8 in.)
One of the most important apocryphic works of the Second Temple Period
is Enoch. According to the biblical narrative (Genesis
5:21-24), Enoch lived only 365 years (far less than the other
patriarchs in the period before the Flood). Enoch "walked with God;
then he was no more for God took him."
The original language of most of this work was, in all likelihood,
Aramaic (an early Semitic language). Although the original version
was lost in antiquity, portions of a Greek translation were
discovered in Egypt and quotations were known from the Church
Fathers. The discovery of the texts from Qumran Cave 4
has finally provided parts of the Aramaic original. In the fragment
exhibited here, humankind is called on to observe how unchanging
nature follows God's will.
The Book of Enoch is a
pseudoepigraphal work (a work
that claims to be by a biblical character). The Book of Enoch was
not included in either the Hebrew or most Christian biblical canons,
but could have been considered a sacred text by the sectarians. The
original Aramaic version was lost until the Dead Sea
fragements were discovered.
Milik, Jazef. T., ed. The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran
Cave 4 (Oxford, 1976) Printed book. General Collections, Library of
English Translation of Enoch (Hanokh)
Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority
Ena I ii:
12. ...But you have
changed your works,
13. [and have not done according to his command,
and tran]sgressed against him; (and have spoken)
haughty and harsh words, with your impure mouths,
14. [against his majesty, for your heart is hard].
You will have no peace.
Ena I iii:
[They (the leaders) and all ... of them took
14. wives from all that they chose and
[they began to cohabit with them and to defile
themselves with them];
15. and to teach them sorcery and [spells and
the cutting of roots; and to acquaint them
16. And they become pregnant by them and
bo[re (great) giants three thousand cubits high ...]